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Marathi Poetry

This article explores the progress of Marathi Poetry from ancient era till the contemporary era (i.e. the 20th century), new paths ventured on and new visages exhibited, primary poets from each era and the changes that their poetry brought about on the field of Marathi poetry. To-date, two Marathi poets – V. V. ViVa Shirwadkar alias Kusumagraj and V. D. VinDa Karandikar – have received the Dnyanpeeth Puraskar, the highest literary award in India. Marathi poetry is personal, social, national and at the same time universal. Marathi poetry extends over all aspects of life like personal experiences, joys and sorrows, Marathi ethos, patriotism, socialism etc. Marathi poetry successfully achieves poetic expression as well as inspiration and joy to the aficionados at the same time.

The depth of this subject is tremendous, and considering the limits of this article there is a great possibility of having missed out on listing some great poets.

In reality, the history of Marathi literature does not date back to ancient times, and is more from the medieval ages. The first person to have openly appreciated the Marathi language is a Portuguese gentleman, and this incident is worth a mention. Attracted to the golden shores of India in the year 1478 AD, Vasco-Da-Gama came into India under the pretext of trade and changed the destiny of India.

From 1567 religious conventions were held to decide the course of spreading the Christian religion. To imbibe love for this new religion among the Marathi people, and to present an alternative to existing Marathi Purana (ancient literature surfeit with devotional stories), Father Stephens, a promoter of Christianity, wrote ChristPuran, a book that highlights the importance of Christ, in Marathi and acquired a place of honour in Maharashtra’s literary world.

Mukundraj’s VivekSindhu, published in the year 1188, was the first Marathi book to be published. Till this book, all classical and scholarly discourses that were published were written in Sanskrit. There was no practice of writing books in the local Marathi language. Due to this common Marathi populace was oblivious of the vast ocean of knowledge that was available in the Sanskrit language. Mukundraj realized the necessity to make this ocean of knowledge available into Marathi. And this is why Mukundraj ignored all ordains of his time and wrote his book in Marathi. After Mukundraj’s venture, all great poets and writers till the eighteenth century displayed courage and capability in writing poetry and philosophical discourses in Marathi. Mukundraj was the forerunner who tied the first links between Vedic culture and Marathi culture.

The Mahanubhav sect of western India was started by Shri Chakradhar Swami in 1267. He propagated a religious movement as well as social movement, in which all were accepted irrespective of their castes and the traditional ritualistic religion was rejected.

The work established by Mukundraj by the end of the twelfth century was effectively taken forth after the beginning of the thirteenth century by Mahanubhav Panth. Chakradhar Swami rejected the idea that Sanskrit was the only effective language for imparting knowledge and proudly embraced the Marathi language as an effective media for pursuing and imparting knowledge. All the writers and poets of the Mahanubhav sect have contributed to enhancing the greatness and capability of the Marathi language. Their pride in the Marathi language is a great favour to the language.

Seven books written by writers of the Mahanubhav sect are famous as Sati Granth:

1. Shishupal Vadh    - 1195 - Poet BhaskarBhat Borikar
2. Ekadshaskand        - 1196 - Kavishwar Bhaskar
3. Vatsya Haran         - 1200 - Damodar Pandit
4. Rukmini Swamvar   - 1210 - Poet Narendra
5. Dyanbodh             - 1254 - Vishwanath Balapurkar
6. Sahyadrivarnan   - 1254 - Khalo Vyas
7. Rudrapurvarnan   - 1285 - Narayan Pandit

Dhavale written by Mahadamba from the Mahanubhav sect is a piquant poem. This poem has given Mahadamba the honour of being the foremost Marathi poetess.

Saint Dnyaneshwar expressed his passionate pride and deep love for the Marathi language in several places in his book Dnyaneshwari. He was appreciably aware that his dear Marathi language is mature and piquant.

Mazhya Marathachi bol kautuke
Pari amrutatehi paija jinke
Aisi akshare rasike. Melveen

(Admire my Marathi language
She wins even against Nectar
So piquant are her words..)

He has glorified the Marathi language in such words. Mukundraj and Saint Dnyaneshwar are a century apart. Both share the same philosophy and are of the same community (community of playwrights). Both were proponents of the Advait philosophy (singularity) through the Marathi language. Saint Dnyaneshwar proved through his Dnyaneshwari that the Marathi language too has its own grace just like the Sanskrit language. The Dnyaneshwari contains great affection for his Guru, Krishna and Arjun (of the Mahabharatha ), Geeta , Saints, Marathi language, devotional knowledge and renunciation. This book is considered illustrious among the world’s literature.

Saint Namdev
Saint Namdev was famous among the Warkari sect as a transcendental devotee of Lord Vitthal. He composed Abhanga that were overflowing with devotional love. He won the love of Saint Dnyaneshwar and other Saints of his time on the strength of his devotion. All of his compositions are concise Abhanga.

Nature of the poems composed by the Warkari sect

The phrase BhavKavita (sentimental poems) is used in Marathi literature in the context of contemporary poems. But his does not mean that BhavKavita were never written before. Poems written by Saints were creations that included flavours of BhavKavita in various forms like Ovi, Abhanga, Goulani, songs, folksongs, Viranya, Bhupalya, Lavnya. Saint Namdev deserves a special mention with respect to this mixed form of BhavKavita.

Saintly poetesses like MuktaBai, JanaBai, BahinaBai, SoyraBai, Nirmala, Bhagu and Kanhopatra have enriched Marathi poetry with their poems brimming with sentiments.

MuktaBai’s mocking Abhanga composition

Mungi Udali Akashi; Tine Gilile SuryaShi

(The Ant flies towards the sky; She swallows the Sun)

and her Abhang composition

Majvari daya kara; Tati Ughada Dnyaneshwar

(Have mercy on me; Open the door, Dnyaneshwar)

are both famous.

Muktai exhorts one to rise above the materialistic level and recognise the all-pervading Brahma represented by all living beings. She likens her soul that rises towards the sole Being and in simple words explains the oneness, the Advaita philosophy.

JanaBai’s composition

Vitho mazha lekurvala; Sange lekurancha melava

(My Lord Vitthal is childlike; Children are drawn towards him)

paints a picture of the Warkari sect’s devotional sentiments.

Her Abhang composition

Doicha padar ala khandyavari; Bharlya bazari jain me

(The head cover has fallen to the shoulder; I will venture into the crowded market)

is extremely inciting and a sentimental burst of womanly emotions.

Soyrabai’s Abhanga composition

Rangi rangala Shriranga; Avagha rang ek zhala

(The Lord plays with colours; now there is but one colour)

is still heard with equal relish today.

Different constructions are visible in the compositions of Saint Poetesses. These acted as guidelines for poetesses in the later period.

Tukaram Maharaj is considered the last poet of the Warkari sect. In the subsequent century i.e. from 1650 to 1800 was the period in which Panditi poetry was composed. This era is called Vaman-Moropant era. This era has contributed tremendously into the coffers of Marathi poetry. Madhvamunishwar, Amrutrai, Mahipati, VamanPandit, and Moropant are important poets from this era. These poets have not only written poems on Nivrutti (the path of Liberation and association with God) but one also finds a mixture of Pravrutti (worldly desires) with Nivrutti. The poems of this era progress from Vairagya (renunciation) towards Sansar (worldly affairs).

In the era preceding this, Shahiri (Ballad/Poet-Singer) poetry reached the peaks of romanticism.

The mention of Shahiri poetry instantly brings up the two forms of this poetry, which are Povada and Lavnya, both of which have authentic Marathi roots. Shahiri literature began in the era of Shivaji Maharaj and developed through plays, dance and music during the Peshwa era. Povada and Lavnya were chiefly composed and sung for entertaining the masses. ManmaySwami Jyotiram Prabhakar, Honaji Bala, SaganBhau, Parashram, Ramjoshi are important Shahir poets of that era.

This ancient Marathi poetry is distinctly segregated by the works of Sant (Saintly), Pant (Scholarly), and Tant (Ballad) poets. The first era taught lessons in spirituality and renunciation. In the following era writers like Mahapati Mukteshwar and Shridhar enriched the Marathi language with their piquant works whereas the third era made it more youthful. The literature explored and displayed different emotions.

Later in 1818 the end of freedom rendered Marathi poetry listless. But it was revived again in 1885.

The era between 1886 and 1920 is important with respect to contemporary Marathi poetry. This period welcomed the new-age ideologies into Marathi poetry. The era preceding this had three styles of poetry, Sant, Pant and Tant. All three cultures slowly died down in the new era. The period around 1885 saw western influences in Maharashtra. Open minded Marathi people were influenced by two important ideologies, which were individualism and aesthetics. The term aesthetics means a sense of perception. It was Alexander Gottlieb Banmgarten who coined the term aesthetics aimed at providing an account of poetry (and indirectly of all arts) as involving a particular form of Sensory Cognition. Aesthetics implies the philosophy of beauty in art. Aesthetics nourished Marathi literature and in particular, largely influenced poetry.

Contemporary poetry was initiated in 1885 through Vishnu Moreshwar Mahajan’s poem Kusumanjali and Mahadev Moreshwar Kunte’s RajaShivaji. These poems displayed signs of significantly changing the face of Marathi poetry through their meaningfulness and lucidity.

Keshavsut’s was the first generation that studied the English language, and was influenced by English literature. Keshavsut was himself influenced by English poets like Keats, Shelley, and Wordsworth.

Before Keshavsut, the subjects of Marathi poetry were restricted to Gods and devotion, ethics-immorality, description of kings, kingdoms and their mighty exploits. The inspiration behind Sant poetry was chiefly spirituality and philosophy, Pant poets were attracted towards the intellectual path and rejected personal feelings, whereas Tant poets restricted themselves to waxing lyrical over Kings and Kingdoms. In this milieu Keshavsut touched subjects which were more realistic and expressed common feelings. Keshavsut was the first poet who showed that BhavGeet (sentimental songs) was the true field of poetry. Keshavsut made some important contributions to Marathi poetry:

1. mixed perception of sentimental songs
2. importance to predominance of affectionate feelings
3. love for nature
4. social consciousness
5. mysteriousness
6. introduction of a new style of poetry called Sunit

Keshavsut went against established practices in Marathi poetry through meaningfulness and lucidity. He established new-age Marathi poetry through exemplary poems like Harapale Shreya, Tutari, Nava Shipai, Zapurza, Sfurti, Satariche Bol. All the different streams in Marathi poetry – for example social and patriotic poetry, deep and meaningful poetry etc – can trace their origins in Keshavsut’s poetry, which is why he is called the father of contemporary Marathi poetry.

Narayan Vaman Tilak was another important poet of Keshavsut’s times. But poet BalKavi alias Trambak Bapuji Thombre’s name needs to be especially mentioned.

BalKavi’s poetry displays a deep influence of aesthetics. A deep love of nature, inescapable attraction towards divinity, extreme and deep sorrow, intent contemplation of vitality, are the distinctive features of his poetry. His poems Fulrani, Khedyatil Ratra, Udasinta, Audumbar, Tadag Asto, ShravanMas are immortal in Marathi poetry.

GovindRaj alias Ram Ganesh Gadkari is another important poet in contemporary Marathi poetry. He had a multi-faceted personality. His personality had many conflicting tendencies. There is a incredible mix of gentility and aesthetics in him. He had tremendous capability and talent. Unrequited love was the primary subject of his poems. Humour was his favourite area. Vihinincha Kalkalat, Hukme Hukum, Chintatur Jantu, Ek Samasya are some of his famous humorous poems.

Along with these poets, other poets like Datta, Madhavanuj, Rengalkar, B. Nagesh Rahalkar, K.N. KruNa Athale, M.V. MoVa Kanitkar, G.J. Agashe, Sumant, Sadhudas have contributed towards strengthening contemporary Marathi poetry.

Though creation of literature had a secondary place in Sawarkar’s life, his name has been made immortal in the field of Marathi poetry. One can see courageousness, depth of imagination, supremacy of thoughts, gentile sentimentality, and other such feelings in his poetry. Sagaras (Ne Mazha Si Ne…), Mazhe Mrutyupatra, Kamla, and Gomantak are some of his famous poems. His patriotic song Jayostute, and his Jaydev Jaydev JayJay Shivaraya which is an ode to Shivaji Maharaj throw insights into his inspirational poetic talent.

Tambe wrote extremely attractive songs of affection. His poems were characterized by varieties of experiences, imaginativeness, artistic composition, mysteriousness, aesthetic composition. His poems NavaVadhu Priya me, Purnahuti, Nirop Ghetana, Rudras Avhahan, Rikame Madhughat, Pannas varshanantar are immortal.

This phase of contemporary Marathi poetry is brimming with a variety of tendencies, up-flows, down-flows, and influences.

Ravikiran Mandal (society) has an important place in contemporary Marathi poetry. Madhav Patwardhan, Shri B.Ranade, Manorama Ranade, Gajanan Madarkolkar, D. L. Gokhale, Shankar Kanetkar, Yeshwnt Pendharkar, Shankar Kashinath Garge alias Dinakar (who left later) and V. D. Ghate were the eight members of this society. This society received immense popularity in that period. Modernistic inspiration was the uniqueness of this society. Their poetry made use of colloquial language and had a natural and direct style. They wrote modern poems that painted a realistic picture. MadhavJulian, Poet Girish, and Yeshwant received immense popularity.

P. K. PraKe Atre alias KeshavKumar’s mocking poem Zhenduchi Phule became famous in this same period. G. L. Thokale’s Sugi, as also the poets G. H. Patil, K. Narede, Sopandev Chaudhary, V. B. Kolte, N. G. Deshpande, Poet Anand’s songs also need mention.

Poet Anil has a lion’s share in making the flow of Marathi poetry modern and fast. His collection of poems Fulvat was published in 1932. He used compositions such as Ovi, Abhanga, Ashtakshari. He experimented with new styles and ideas in poetry. He is considered as the proponent of the free style of composing poetry. His poems display the experimental turn of path in Marathi poetry.

N. G. Deshpande is also and important poet. Poetry aficionados became frenzied with glee on listening to his songs ‘ranat geli bai sheel’ or ‘NadiKinari ..’.

Anant Kanekar’s collection of poems Chandrat ani itar kavita also received immense popularity.

These are two important poets from the decade 1935 – 45. Entranced with the beauty of nature, the language of nature can be said to characterize Borkar’s (fondly called BakiBaab) poetry. The depths of feeling in his poems are equally important. His collections of poems Pratibha, JeevanSangeet, DudhSagar are famous.

Poet V. V. ViVa Shirwadkar alias Kusumagraj was BakiBaab’s peer. Kusumagraj tried to establish his own style right from the beginning. One can see an independent style in his poem Vishakha, though the poem has imbibed all the heritage of modern Marathi poetry. Along with Vishakha his collection of poems like JeevanLahiri, Kinara, RasYatra, VadalVel, Swagat, Marathi version of Meghdoot are also famous.

A great change is visible in Marathi poetry’s perception since 1945. The era initiated by Keshavsut ends here. The poetry up to this era seems to be inspired by romanticism. The beginning of this era saw importance given to anti-romanticism. Mardhekar’s collection of poems Kahi Kavita was published in 1947 which initiated new-age poetry. Extremely ripping meaningfulness, perception of meaninglessness, phrase of words, eccentric image, and crooked style were the unique features of his poems! Mardhekar’s poems were vastly different from the aesthetic poems of his era and the one preceding his. Marathi poetry took a turn from aesthetics towards realism through his poems. But Borkar and Kusumagraj maintained the aesthetic style of poetry even though they imbibed new-age poetry.

V.R. VaRa Kant is the current aesthetic poet from Marathwada. His poems Velanti, MaranGandh, Vajli vijechi tali have imbibed the influence of new-age poetry.

ManMohan is also an important poet. Shankar Vaidya published his poems under the pen name Aditya.

The age from 1947 to 1960 is considered as the era of new-age poetry. BaSi Mardhekar was the foremost proponent of this style, but all the above mentioned poets defined the face of this style. Avoiding the drama and affectation of feelings and writing realistic poems, using free style of composition, dissolving the difference between meaningfulness and creativity, strong despair, machine age reality were the hallmark of new-age poetry. Anil, Kusumagraj, Borkar, P. S. Rege, Sharadchandra Muktibodh imbibed new-age poetry but wrote poems in the style that they were comfortable with. But Bapat, Padgavkar, and Karandikar accepted new-age poetry the most. Accepting newness at the same time maintaining the uniqueness of established practices is the most unique feature of Marathi poetry.

Indira Sant, Padma, Sanjivini Marathe, Shanta Shelke started writing poetry during the time of Ravikiran Mandal. Indira Sant’s poetry was the most influential. Shela, Mendhi, RangBavri, Bahulya are her important collection of poems. Shanta Shelke accomplished unparalleled work in composing songs. Other poetesses like Padma Lokur, Shirisha Pai, Mallika Amarsheikh, Anjali Thakar, Prabha Ganorkar, Anuradha Potdar have composed admirable poetry.

There are two important eras of Marathi literature after independence; 1947 to 1960 and the second era after 1960. The initiator of the first era BaSi Mardhekar expired in 1957. Around 1960 the post-independence nihilism sharpened. The meaninglessness and impotence of human life were expressed more keenly in this era. The feeling of injustice by the Dalit (low class) movement increased. The unemployed youth were agitated. This economic, social, and political environment influenced literature. ‘Angry young men’ and ‘Dalit literature’ were the two subversive streams that emerged in literature, which found expression primarily through poetry. The angry youth started a movement through small periodicals. The first publication to initiate this movement was Shabda. This movement started in Mumbai and eventually reached the talukas. The movement brought the ethos of reality into Marathi literature. Litterateurs like Sartra, Kamu and Kafka were the idols for these poets.

Manohar Oak (Aytya Kavita), Satish Kalsekar (Indriyopvishad), Vasant Gurjar (Aranya), Bhalchandra Nemade (Meladi), Tulashi Parab (Hillol), Arun Kolhatkar (Kalya Kavita, Arun Kolhatkarchi Kavita), Dilip Chitre (Kavita, Kavitenantarchya Kavita), Vasant Abhaji Dahake (YogBhrashta) and Gurunath Dhuru (Gloria) are important poets of the sixties. Among these Dilip Chitre and Arun Kolhatkar’s poems are considered the next era of new-age poetry. Dilip Chitre’s poetry took an existentialist turn. He widened the horizon of poetry by introducing devices like distortion and abstraction of language in keeping with the nature of experience. Arun Kolhatkar’s poetry reflects the disastrous taste of metropolitan life in a surrealistic manner. The roots and branches of their poems are spread from old Marathi poems right across to European poetry. They played an important role in modernizing Marathi poetry. The preoccupation with form seen in Marathi poetry after Mardhekar was eschewed by Chitre and Kolhatkar. Vilas Sarang is also an important poet. He experimented with poetic language and poetic form. Realism appears to have started influencing Marathi poetry since 1960. These poets attempted unravelling the mystery of life while experiencing pure reality. The features of realism like solitude, boredom, loneliness, meaninglessness appear through the work of these poets.

Dalit poetry of the sixties has a background from pre-independence times. Dalit poetry of the sixties caught speed through inspiration from Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar’s and Jyotiba Phule’s work. Daya Pawar (Kondavad), Yeshwant Manohar (Utthan Gunfa), Vaman Nimbalkar (Gavkusa baheril Kavita), Arjun Dangle (Chavni halte Ahe), Namdeo Dhasal (Golpeetha), Hira Bansode (Poornima) etc are important poets of this stream. Of these Namdeo Dhasal is the most prominent Dalit poet. Rejecting conventional poetic language he uses the language of the Dalits in his compositions. After 1960 all castes of the Dalit class came forward to write poetry. Poetry expressing a strong protest against the oppression to which they had been subjected to for centuries and a dream of a casteless, egalitarian society was written. Gangadhar Pantavne’s Asmitadarshan presented these poets with a literate podium. Dalit poetry brought a new social sentiment into Marathi poetry.

Surve is a capable and talented poet who came up through the worker class of a metropolis like Mumbai.

Kamgar ahe me, talapti talwar
(I am a worker, a flashing sword)

Sarasvatanno thodasa gunha karnar ahe

(O ye scholars I am going to commit a small crime)

so saying he presented the woes of the worker class.

Aisa ga me Bhrama, Mazhe Vidyapeeth and Jaharnama are three of his important collection of poems. His poems do not have the bellowing attitude of Dalit poetry but have the mature perception of revolution. The poems are defined by a refined perception which appeals them to poetry aficionados of all levels. He gave a new turn to poetry. Poetry that had become abstract and obscure became concrete, narrative and descriptive. He wrote in a style that was at once comprehensible and intimate.

Other than these Suresh Bhat, Grace, Anand Yadav, Arati Prabhu, Purushottam Patil, Shankar Vaidya, Shankar Ramani are also important poets of the sixties. Arati Prabhu (C.T. Khanolkar) introduced a keen emotional element in poetry which had been more intellectual until then.

Suresh Bhat wrote Marathi poems in the form of BhavGeet and Gazhals. He never tied himself down to any ism. Due to his physical disability and lack of interest in academics, he often suffered humiliation at home. According to him, his poems were the only source of comfort for him during such times of bitterness and depression. Bhat made no bones about his hurt over the rejections and embarrassment that he suffered earlier in life, and said that he was not someone who forgives or forgets easily. His poems reflect his angst about human suffering, and due to their fiery nature, are generally popular amongst the youth.

Manik Godghate’s (known by the pen name Grace) poems were defined by arresting imagery, dramatic potential of words and verse and an incomprehensibility. He wrote lyrical poetry that expressed intense but vague experiences of apathy and sadness.
Chandramadhaviche Pradesh, Rajputra ani Darling, Sandhyakalchya Kavita, are his important collection of poems.

Arati Prabhu (C.T. Khanolkar) is another important poet of the sixties. The author Gangadhar Gadgil describes him as a poet who cannot be defined in a poem. His poems are defined by being true to the times, and current issues, and depth of meaning which are essential features of excellent literature.

Roy Kinikar’s Ratra and Uttaratra are also important collection of poems.

Poetic emotions, uninhibited and artistic celebration of the sensuous appeal of the feminine form and romance between lovers characterize his poetry. Dola, Fulora, Himsek, Gandharekha, HasraPakshi, ShriYal, are his important collection of poems.
He artistically plays with words and their form with great effect.

The trio of VinDa Karandikar, Vasant Bapat and Mangesh Padgaonkar successfully experimented with staging poetry reading.

V.D. VinDa Karandikar
Karandikar’s collection of poems Swedganga was published in 1949. His poems Kirtan, Dhondya Nhavi, Mazhya Mana Ban dagad, Yantravatar became extremely popular.

His poems can be linked with new-age poetry due to his free form style and compositions that touched the nerve of existentialism in the machine age.

Love, patriotism, social consciousness, and description of nature are the primary subjects of his poems. He composed poetry using different traditional styles of Shahiri poetry like Powada and Lavani. His poems 'Jhelumche Ashru', 'Shatakanantar', 'Dakkhanchi Rani' became extremely popular.

Nature and love are Padgaonkar’s favorite subjects. His collection of poems 'DharaNrutya', 'Gypsy', and 'Chori' became famous. The freshness of his compositions and the freeness of expressions characterized his poems and awarded him a place of importance in Marathi poetry.

Sadananad Rege, Sharadhchandra Muktibodh, Indira Sant are other important poets of this period.

Nihilism entered Marathi poetry through new-age poetry. The poetry of sixties sees this despair enhanced. This is evident through both meaning and manifestation. These poets have effectively used colloquial language and fully utilized the capability of the words at different levels. Instead of the traditional forms of poetry like Vrutta, Chanda, and Alankar these poems have a free form and style and an imagery of a new world.

Many poets proliferated in the decade from the seventies to the eighties. Gurunath Samant, Narayan Kulkarni, Kavthekar, Uttam Kolgaonkar, Arun Mhatre, Ashok Naigaonkar, Anuradha Patil, Ashok Bagve, Neerja, Pragnya Lokhande, Rajas Kalyankar, Khalil Momin, Asavari Kakde, Vivek Mohan Rajapure are some poets of this period.

1975 was the International Women’s Year and 75 to 85 the International Women’s decade. Feminism emerged and poetesses like Prabha Ganorkar, Neerja, Mallika Amrod, Pragnya Lokhande, Rajani Parulekar, Ashwini Dhongde, Hira Bansod, Anjali Kulkarni successfully expressed the same.

Even the current century of 2000 finds new thoughts and ideas being introduced into Marathi poetry. The information technology revolution and the life style changes affected by it have been expressed in today’s poems. Poets like Mangesh, Narayan Kale, Ramesh Ingale, Uttradakar, Nitin Wagh, Salil Wagh, Sanjeev Khandekar, Hemant Divte, Ganesh Vispute, Ashok Narayan Kale have written poems expressing their perspectives on social ethos and reality of today’s common man.

Looking at the history of Marathi poetry which is a century old, one finds just over a 100 – 125 poems that have been published, which cover the journey of Marathi poetry at every stage from compositions by Saints to the modern era. But these are an important study for the structured development of Marathi poetry.

YadavKalin Marathi Kavya Samiksha Irlekar Suhasini, Dhara Prakashan , Aurangabad, 1980
Prachin KavyaShastra Kangle R.P., Mauj Prakashan, Mumbai, 1974
Aristolche KavyaShastra Karandikar G. V., Mauj Prakashan, Mumbai, Second edition - 1974
Arvachin Marathi Kavya Darshan Kale AkshayKumar, Banhatti Prakashan, Nagpur, 1999
Kavita Kusumagrajanchi Kale AkshayKumar, Sahitya Prasar Kendra, Nagpur, 1986
Adhunik Marathi Kavita: Kahi Rupe, Kahi Ranga Kulkarni G. M., Mehta Publishing House, Pune, 1991
Madhavrao Patwardhan VangmayDarshan Chunekar S.R., Mauj Prakashan, Mumbai, 1973
Satthotari Marathi KAvita Va Kavi Jadhav R. G. , Saket Prakashan, Aurangabad, 1990
Adhunik Marathi Kaviyatricnchi Kavita Jadhav R.G., Pratima Prakashan, Pune, 1996
Arvachin Marathi Kavya Jog R. , Mumbai Sahitya Sangha, Mumbai, 1946
KaviteVishayi Daghake Vasant Abaji, Swarup Prakashan, Aurangabad, 1999
Geetaman Tendulkar Ramesh, VishwaMohini Prakashan, Pune, 1982
BalKavinchi Kavita: Teen Sandarbha Tendulkar Ramesh, Mauj Prakashan, Mumbai, 1999
Keshavsut : Pach Chintanika Pandit B., Maharashtra Prakashan, Amravati, 1961
Adhunik Marathi Kavita Pandit B., Suvichar Prakashan, Nagpur, 1968
Chandorachana Patwardhan Madhavrao, Karnatak Publishing House, Mumbai, 1937
Kavya ani Kavyodaya Patwardhan V.B., Publisher- M.R.Joshi, Pune, 1921
Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology K.M.George

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